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"Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a proinflammatory cytokine expressed in damaged vascular cells, and the present study aimed to assess if this cytokine could be a new biomarker of PAH during SSc.


In SSc-PAH patients, IL-32 sera levels were significantly higher when compared with SSc patients without PAH and patients affected by iPAH. The analysis of ROC curve showed that IL-32 sera levels above 11.12 pg/ml were able to predict patients with PAH (sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 100%). Furthermore, the IL-32 sera levels of patients with SSc correlated with both mPAP and sPAP. In the skin derived from SSc-PAH patients, the number of IL-32+ cells was significantly increased when compared with the skin derived from SSc patients without PAH, correlating with the mRSS.


Our study suggested that sera determination of IL-32 may be a promising approach to evaluate the presence of PAH in SSc patients and together with longitudinal future studies could help to increase the understanding how these biomarkers mirror the vascular changes and the inflammatory process during SSc."

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